Fiqh of Ramadan

Fiqh of Ramadan

Fiqh of Ramadan

Fiqh of Ramadan

Asalaamu Alaykum Brothers & Sisters,

It is a blessing from Allah the most great that we are able to enjoy another Ramadan.

It seems like it was only yesterday that we celebrated Eid, and here we are again

Have we improved, have we benefited.

How many people have we farewelled+3., who did not have the opportunity to benefit from this Ramadan.

With our intention to Fast in place, it is our duty to submit to Allah and show our gratitude by Fasting with complete Taqwa.

What is Taqwa; it’s an Islamic concept that is interpreted as being conscious of Allah. It has many further understandings and interpretation such as meaning piousness, fear of Allah, love for Allah, and self restraint.

Having Taqwa allows you to be constantly aware of Allah and a reminder of your relationship and responsibility to Allah as His creation and servant.

So what is your Action Plan for Allah’s Pleasure

Fiqh of Ramadan

Don’t settle for standards this month, challenge yourself to be better and seek to exceed and be rewarded. Clear your relations with other creatures of Allah, forgive them and turn a new page.

Today is your day, you are that Special Person, why? Allah has Granted You Life and Guided You to Islam.

Ramadan is a special month to Allah when the Quran was revealed, to a special person the Prophet Muhamad (peace and blessings upon him), to a special nation with special blessings of Forgiveness, Mercy and Reward so that you may Attain Taqwa.

Allah affirms his relationship with us when He says in verse [2:183] “O you who believe” He is referring to us and then goes on to explain how we can improve our relationship with Him through the process of Fasting.

The One most deserving of Thanks and Praise from people is Allah simply due to the great favours and blessings that He has bestowed upon His slaves in both spiritual and worldly terms.

Allah has commanded us to give thanks to Him for those blessings, and not to deny them.

Allah says “Therefore remember Me. I will remember you, and be grateful to Me and never be ungrateful to Me” [2:152]

Allah continues to express His special connection with His slave by offering us amazing blessings during the month of Ramadan and no other, to name a few:

  • Any Sunnah or Nufil pray has the same reward as a Fard pray
  • Every night Allah chooses people he’ll save from the Fire and grant them Jannah
  • Completing your evening prayers with the Emam will grant you the reward of a person who has prayed all night.

Now you should Feel Special,

So Be Special and don’t take this special month for granted

 

 

What are the best ways a Muslim can thank Allah for all the blessings He has bestowed on us.

Thanks or gratitude means reciprocating kindness and giving praise to the one who has done good and kind things.

The one who is most deserving of thanks and praise from people is Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, because of the great favours and blessings that He has bestowed upon His slaves in both spiritual and worldly terms.

Allah has commanded us to give thanks to Him for those blessings, and not to deny them.

He says: “Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying).

I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless favours on you) and never be ungrateful to Me” [2:152]

Allah has mentioned some of the blessings that He has bestowed upon His slaves, and has commanded them to be grateful for them, and has told us that few of His slaves give thanks to Him:

Allah says:

“O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allah — Islamic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you with, and be grateful to Allah, if it is indeed He Whom you worship” [2:172]

“And surely, We gave you authority on the earth and appointed for you therein provisions (for your life). Little thanks do you give”[7:10]

“And among His Signs is this, that He sends the winds as glad tidings, giving you a taste of His Mercy (i.e. rain), and that the ships may sail at His Command, and that you may seek of His Bounty, in order that you may be thankful” [31:46]

Then Allah blessed us and forgave us our shortcomings in giving thanks for these blessings. He says:

“And if you would count the favours of Allah, never could you be able to count them. Truly, Allah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” [16:18]

The Muslim is always asking his Lord to help him to give thanks to Him, because were it not for Allah’s helping His slave, he would not be able to give thanks. Hence it is prescribed in the saheeh Sunnah (authentic prophetic teachings) to ask for help from Allah to give thanks to Him.

It was narrated from Mu’aadh ibn Jabal that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) took his hand and said: “O Mu’aadh, by Allah I love you, by Allah I love you.

” Then he said, “I advise you, O Mu’aadh, do not fail following every prayer to say: O Allah help me to remember You, thank You and worship You properly.”

Narrated by Abu Dawood and al-Nasaa’i .

Gratitude for blessings is a cause of them being increased, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And (remember) when your Lord proclaimed: ‘If you give thanks (by accepting faith and worshipping none but Allah),

I will give you more (of My blessings); but if you are thankless (i.e. disbelievers), verily, My punishment is indeed severe’” [14:7]

Now… how can a person thank his Lord for His great blessings?

His gratitude should fulfil all the necessary conditions, which are gratitude of the heart, gratitude of the tongue and gratitude of the physical faculties.

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Gratitude may be in the heart, in submission and humility; on the tongue, in praise and acknowledgement; and in the physical faculties, by means of obedience and submission.

Allah says: “And whatever of blessings and good things you have, it is from Allah”[16:53].

In Summary:

In order to be grateful to your Lord for the blessings that He has bestowed upon you, you must acknowledge in your heart that the giver of these blessings and the Best ower is Allah, may He be exalted

So you venerate Him, attribute it to Him, and you acknowledge that with your tongue, so you give thanks to Him after waking from sleep for having given new life

And after eating and drinking for having provided you with them and bestowed them upon you, and so on with every blessing that you see in your life.

Remember that gratitude for blessings is a blessing which needs to be given thanks for, so that one will continue to enjoy the blessings of his Lord.

Thanking his Lord for those blessings and praising Him for helping him to be among those who give thanks.

We ask Allah, may He be exalted, to help us and you to do that which He loves and which pleases Him.

And Allah knows best.

 

Making up missed days

Making up missed days of Ramadan is an obligation that need not be fulfilled immediately because the time for fulfilling is very wide and one may perform it at any time.

This is also the case with the fast of expiation. It has been authentically reported that ‘Aishah would make up her missed days during the month of Sha’ban (the month preceding Ramadan),

And that she did not perform them immediately even if she had the ability to do so.

Observing the fast of Ramadan and making up the days are the same with respect to the fact that if one day of Ramadan is missed, then only one day needs to be made up.

There is no additional penalty. They differ about the fact that when a person makes up the missed days he need not do so on consecutive days.

This is because Allah says: “For him who is sick or on a journey, [the same] number of other days”–that is, whoever is sick or traveling and breaks the fast must fast the same number of days that he missed, consecutively or inconsecutively.

Allah has ordered the fast in a general manner without any restricting clauses.

As for making up the missed days of Ramadan, ad-Daraqutni recorded from Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet said: “If you wish, make them on nonconsecutive days and if you wish on consecutive days.”

If one delays performing the missed days of fasting until the next Ramadan comes, he is to fast the present Ramadan and then make up the days from the previous Ramadan.

There is no ransom payment to be made, regardless of whether the person delayed the fasting due to some acceptable excuse or not.

This is the opinion of the Hanafiyyah and al-Hassan al-Basri. Malik, ash-Shaf’i, Ahmad, and Ishaq agree that there is no ransom payment if the fasting was delayed due to some excuse,

But they differ when the fasting was delayed without any acceptable excuse. In such a case, according to them,

The person should fast the present Ramadan and then make up the days he missed from the previous Ramadan along with a ransom payment of a mud of food given in charity each day.

It should be noted that they have no acceptable evidence for that opinion. Apparently, the correct opinion is that of the Hanafiyyah, as there is no lawmaking without an authentic legal text to support it (that is, a Qur’anic verse or hadith).

Whoever dies and still had some days of Ramadan to make up

The scholars agree that if an individual dies and has missed some prayers during his life, his guardian or heir is not to perform those prayers on his behalf.

Similarly, if one does not have the ability to fast, no one is to fast for him while he is alive. There is a difference of opinion over the case of one who dies and has not made up some days of fasting although he had the ability to do so.

Most scholars, including Abu Hanifah, Malik, and the Shaf’iyyah, say that the guardian or heir is not to fast on such a person’s behalf,

But is to feed one person a day for the missed days. The chosen opinion, however, among the Shaf’iyyah is that it is preferred for the guardian to fast on the deceased’s behalf, thus fulfilling his duty.

There is therefore no need for him to feed anyone.

The meaning of guardian is near relative, whether it be an agnate or an heir or someone else. If a non-relative fasts for the deceased, it will only be valid if he got the permission of the guardian.

The proof for the preceding is what Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim recorded from ‘Aishah.

The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: “If one dies and has some fasts to make up, then his guardian’ should fast on his behalf.

” Al-Bazzar added the words: “If he wishes to do so, while Ibn ‘Abbas related that a man came to the Prophet and said:

“O Messenger of Allah, my mother died and a month’s fasting was due from her.

Should I fast on her behalf?” The Prophet asked: “If your mother had a debt would you fulfill it for her?” He said, “Yes.” The Prophet observed: “A debt to Allah has more of a right to be fulfilled.”

This is related by Ahmad, atTirmizhi, an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.

An-Nawawi [one of the most knowledgeable of the Shaf’iyyah] says: “That statement is the most authentic one, and we follow it.

This is the opinion that has been determined to be correct according to our companions in both hadith and fiqh.”

Places where the day is extremely long and the night is short

Scholars differ about what the Muslims who are in areas where the day is extremely long and the night is short should do.

What timings should they follow? Some say they should follow the norms of the areas where the Islamic legislation took place–that is, Makkah or Madinah.

Others say they should follow the timings of the area that is closest to them which has normal days and nights.

 

Acts that void the fast

The actions that void the fast may be divided into two types:

1) Those which void the fast and require that the day be made up later, and

2) Those which void the fast and require that the day be made up later and in addition to being made up, also require an act of expiation.

Intentional eating or drinking

If one eats due to forgetfulness, a mistake, or coercion, then he does not have to make up the day later or perform any expiation.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said: “Whoever forgets he is fasting, and eats or drinks is to complete his fast,

As it was Allah who fed him and gave him something to drink.” This is related by the group.

Commenting on it, at-Tirmizhi says: “Most of the scholars act according to this hadith. It is the opinion of Sufyan ath-Thauri, ash-Shaf’i, Ahrnad, and Ishaq.”

Abu Hanifah reported that the Prophet said: “Whoever breaks his fast during Ramadan due to forgetfulness is not to make up the day later or to perform any expiation.”

This is related by ad-Daraqutni, al-Baihaqi, and al-Hakim, who says that it is sahih according to Muslim’s criterion.

Ibn Hajr says that its chain is sahih.

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Prophet said: “Allah will not hold anyone of this nation responsible for what is done in error, forgetfulness or under coercion.”

This is recounted by Ibn Majah, at-Tabarani, and al-Hakim.

Intentional vomiting

If one is overcome and vomits unintentionally, he does not have to make up the day later on or perform the acts of expiation. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace,

Said: “Whoever is overcome and vomits is not to make up the day.” Whoever vomits intentionally must make up the day.”

This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, ad-Daraqutni, and al-Hakim. The latter called it sahih.

Of the report’s credibility, al-Khattabi says: “I do not know of any difference of opinion among the scholars on this point.

If one vomits unintentionally he is not in need of making up the day, while one who vomits intentionally must make up the day later.”

The menses and post-childbirth bleeding

Even if such bleeding begins just before the sunset, the fast of that day is rendered void and the day must be made up.

There is a consensus of scholars on this point.

Ejaculation of sperm

Ejaculation voids the fast even if it was just due to kissing, hugging, or masturbation, and the day must be made up.

If the ejaculation was due to looking at or thinking about something, then it is like having a wet dream during the day and it,

Therefore, does not void the fast nor is there any requirement on the person.

Similarly, ejaculation of seminal fluid does not harm the fast in any way.

Eating something that is not nourishing, such as salt

Someone who uses a lot of salt for a reason other than eating, in which it goes down to the stomach, breaks the fast according to most scholars.

If one has the intention, while he is fasting, to break the fast, he in effect voids the fast even if he does not actually eat anything

This is because the intention is one of the pillars of the fast and, if one changes his intention, he has nullified his fast.

If one eats, drinks, or has intercourse, thinking that the sun has set or that fajr has not occurred

In such cases, according to most scholars and the four imams, that person is to make up that day. However, there is a difference of opinion on this point.

Ishaq, Dawud, Ibn Hazm, ‘Ata, ‘Urwah, al-Hassan al-Basri, and Mujahid maintain that such a fast is sound and that the person need not make up the day later.

They base their opinion on the fact that Allah says in the Qur’an: “And there is no sin for you in the mistakes you make unintentionally,

But what your hearts purpose [that will be a sin for you].”

Unintentional mistakes

The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: “Allah will not hold anyone of this nation responsible for what is done by mistake . . .”

‘Abdurrazaq related that Mamar reported from al-Amash that Zaid ibn Wahb said: “The people broke their fast during the time of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab.

I saw a big pot being brought from Hafsah’s house and the people drank. Then the sun appeared from behind the clouds and this distressed the people. They said: ‘We have to make up this day.’

‘Umar asked: ‘Why? By Allah, we have not involved ourselves in any sin.’ ”

Al-Bukhari records that Asma’ bint Abu Bakr said: “We broke the fast of Ramadan when it was cloudy during the time of the Prophet, and then the sun appeared again.”

Commenting on the subject, Ibn Taimiyyah says: “This points to two things:

-1- that it is not preferred for one to delay breaking the fast until one is absolutely certain that the sun has set . . . and

-2- that it is not necessary to make up such a day.

If the Prophet would have ordered them to make up that day, it would have become public knowledge.

The fact that it has been related that they broke their fast [and that it has not been related that they were ordered to make up that day] points to the fact that they were not ordered to make up that day.”

Sexual intercourse during a day of Ramadan

The only action, according to most scholars, which requires that both the day be made up and the act of expiation be performed is having sexual intercourse during a day of Ramadan.

Abu Hurairah reported that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said: “I am destroyed, O Messenger of Allah!” The Prophet asked: “What has destroyed you?”

He said, “I had intercourse with my wife during a day of Ramadan.” The Prophet asked: “Are you able to free a slave?” He said, “No”.

The Prophet asked: “Is it possible for you to fast for two consecutive months?

” He said, “No.” The Prophet asked: “Is it possible for you to feed sixty poor people?”

He said, “No.” The Prophet said: “Then sit.” A basket of dates was brought to the Prophet and he said to the man: Give this in charity.

The man said: “To someone poorer than us? There is no one in this city who is poorer than us!” The Prophet laughed until his molar teeth could be seen and said: “Go and feed your family with it.”

This is related by the group.

Most scholars say that both men and women have to perform the acts of expiation if they intentionally have intercourse during a day of Ramadan on which they had intended to fast.

If they had intercourse out of forgetfulness or not due to choice–that is, due to coercion, or they did not have the intention to fast, then the expiation is not obligatory on either one of them.

If the woman was forced to have intercourse by the man, the expiation will be obligatory only upon the man.

According to ash-Shaf’i, the expiation is not obligatory upon the woman in any case–that is, regardless if it was due to choice or coercion,

And she need only make up the day of fasting that she voided. An-Nawawi says: ”

The most authentic opinion, in general, is that the expiation is obligatory upon the man only and that there is nothing upon the woman.

There is nothing obligatory on her in relation to this matter, as it is a matter of [paying] money [due to something related to] sexual intercourse and this refers to the duty of the man and not the woman.

[In this way,] it is similar to the case of dowry.”

Abu Dawud says: “Ahmad was asked about someone who had sex during Ramadan: ‘Is there any expiation upon the woman?’ He said: ‘I have not heard of any.’ ”

In al-Mughni it is stated: “This refers to the fact that the Prophet ordered the man who had had sexual intercourse to free a slave.

He did not order the woman to do anything, although he obviously knew that she was a partner in the act.”

According to most scholars, acts of expiation must be performed in the order that was mentioned in the hadith. The first command is to free a slave.

If this is not possible, the person is to fast for two consecutive months.

If that is not possible, the person is to feed sixty poor people with meals that are similar to an average meal in his household.

The person cannot jump from one act to another unless he is not able to perform the prior order commanded.

According to the Malikiyyah and a narration from Ahmad, the person is free to choose any of the above three acts and that will be sufficient for him.

This latter opinion is based on the report from Malik and Ibn Juraij on the authority of Humaid ibn ‘Abdurrahman who reported that Abu Hurairah narrated that a man broke his fast during Ramadan and the Prophet ordered him,

As an expiation, to free a slave or fast two months consecutively or to feed sixty poor people. This is related by Muslim.

In the preceding hadith, the word “or” implies choice, but according to some, the reason for the expiation to be performed was different and therefore the person could choose,

As in the case of the expiation for breaking an oath. Ash-Shaukani says: “In the different narrations, there is evidence that the expiation is to be performed in order or according to one’s choice.

Those who relate it to be in order are more in number. Al-Muhallab and al-Qurtubi combined the narrations and said that the event [of someone breaking the fast] occurred more than once.”

Al-Hafizh differs: “This is not correct.

It was just one event and the parts are all united. So the crux of the matter is that there was not more than one event.

Some combine the reports and say that following the order is preferred, but that one may choose. Others say the opposite.”

Whoever has sexual intercourse (with his wife) on a day of Ramadan and, before he performs the act of expiation,

Has intercourse on another day of Ramadan, need only perform one act of expiation according to a narration from Ahmad and the Hanafiyyah.

This is because there is a punishment for acts that are repeated, and if the expiation or punishment is not carried out, all the acts are taken together as one.

According to Malik, ash-Shaf’i, and Ahmad, the person must perform the expiation twice, as each day of Ramadan is a separate act of worship.

If the expiation is obligatory because the person voided the fast, the separate acts are not combined together.

All scholars agree that if the person intentionally had intercourse during a day of Ramadan and has performed the expiation and then has intercourse on another day of Ramadan,

Then another expiation becomes obligatory upon him. Similarly, they are in agreement that if one has intercourse twice during a day,

Before performing the expiation for the first act, then he need only perform one act of expiation. If he has performed the expiation for the first one,

Then he need not perform an act of expiation for the second, according to most scholars. Ahmad says that in such a case, he must perform a total of two acts of expiation.

 

 

Permissible Acts

The following acts are permissible for the fasting person:

Pouring water over one’s self and submersing one’s self in water

Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abdurrahman reported from a number of companions that they had seen Allah’s Messenger pour water over his head while he was fasting due to thirst or extreme heat.

This is related by Ahmad, Malik, and Abu Dawud with a sahih chain.

In the two Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim, it is related from ‘Aishah that the Prophet would rise in the morning on a fasting day and then would perform ghusl (a complete bath).

If during the bath some water is swallowed unintentionally, the fast is still valid.

Applying kohl or eyedrops or anything else to the eyes

These acts are all permissible, even if some taste from it finds its way to the throat, as the eyes are not a passageway to the stomach.

Anas reported that he would apply kohl while he was fasting. This is the opinion of the Shaf’iyyah. Ibn al-Munzhir records the same opinion from ‘Ata, al-Hassan, an-Nakha’i, al-Au~a’i, Abu Hanifah, Abu Thaur, and Dawud. It is related from the following companions: Ibn ‘Umar, Anas, and Ibn Abu ‘Aufa. According to atTirmizhi, nothing authentic has been related from the Prophet concerning this question.

Kissing for one who has the ability to control himself

It is confirmed that ‘Aishah said: “The Prophet would kiss and embrace while he was fasting, for he had the most control of all of you over his desires.”

‘Umar said: “I was excited one time and I kissed [my wife] while I was fasting. I went to the Prophet and said: ‘Today I committed a horrendous act–I kissed while I was fasting.’ The Prophet asked: ‘What do you think of rinsing with water while fasting?’

I said: ‘There is nothing wrong with that.’ The Prophet said: ‘Then what is the question about?'”

Ibn al-Munzhir says: ” ‘Umar, Ibn ‘Abbas, Abu Hurairah, ‘Aishah, ‘Ata, ash-Sha’bi, al-Hassan, Ahmad, and Ishaq permit kissing.

The Hanafiyyah and Shaf’iyyah say that it is disliked if it incites one’s desires.

If it does not do so, it is not disliked although it is better to avoid it.” There is no difference between an old man or a young man in this matter.

The question is whether or not the kiss excites one’s desires. If it does, it is disliked. If it does not, it is not disliked although it is best to avoid it.

It does not matter if the kiss was on the cheek or on the lips, and so on. Touching with the hand or embracing follow the same ruling as kissing.

Any type of injection

Injections do not break the fast whether they are for feeding the person or just medicine. It does not matter if the injection was intravenous or underneath the skin.

It also does not matter if what was injected reaches the stomach, as it does not reach the stomach through the customary manner (that food does).

Cupping to drain blood

The Prophet, upon whom be peace, was cupped while he was fasting. However, if doing this weakens the fasting person, it is disliked.

Thabit al-Bunani asked Anas: “Did you dislike cupping for a fasting person during the time of the Prophet?” He answered: “No [we did not], unless it made someone weak.”

This is related by al-Bukhari and others. Vivisection follows the same ruling as cupping.

Rinsing the mouth and nose

These acts are allowed in general, but it is disliked to exaggerate (that is, use a lot of water and put the water deep into the mouth or nose while fasting).

Laqit ibn Sabra reported that the Prophet said: “Exaggerate when rinsing your nose unless you are fasting.”

This is related by an-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmizhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmizhi called it hassan sahih.

Scholars dislike using nose drops (that is, applying medicine through the nose) while one is fasting, for they are of the opinion that it breaks the fast.

There is a hadith that supports their opinion.

Ibn Qudamah sums up the various opinions on the subject: “If while gargling or rinsing the nose for the sake of purifying one’s self

[for example, for prayer] water reaches the throat unintentionally and not due to exaggeration, there is no problem.

This is according to al-Auza’i, Ishaq, and one statement from ash-Shaf’i, which is related from Ibn ‘Abbas.

Malik and Abu Hanifah hold that it breaks the fast because that water reaches the stomach.

If he was aware that he was fasting, it breaks his fast, as if he would have drunk intentionally.

The first opinion is stronger, since [the water] reached the throat without intention or exaggeration.

It is similar to having a fly enter the mouth and proceed to the throat. That differentiates it from an intentional act.”

Those things which one could not protect one’s self from, such as swallowing one’s saliva, the dust of the road, sifting flour and so on are all overlooked

Ibn ‘Abbas ruling is that: “There is no problem with tasting liquid food or something you wish to purchase.”

Al-Hassan used to chew the walnuts for his grandson while he was fasting. Ibrahim also permitted that.

Chewing gum (unlike the one in vogue in the West, it has no sweetness or fragrance) is disliked. The gum must not break into pieces.

Those who say that it is disliked include ash-Sha’bi, anNakha’i, the Hanafiyyah, the Shaf’iyyah, and the Hanbaliyyah. ‘

Aishah and ‘Ata permit chewing, as nothing reaches the stomach and it is just like putting pebbles into one’s mouth provided it does not break into parts.

If a part of it breaks off and enters the stomach, it will break the fast.

Ibn Taimiyyah says: “Smelling perfumes does not harm the fast.” Enlarging upon the subject, he says: “As for kohl,

Injections, drops dropped into the urethra [that is, enemas for medicinal purposes], and treatment for brain and stomach injuries, there is some dispute among the scholars.

Some say that none of these break the fast, some say that all except kohl would break the fast, while others say all except the drops break the fast, or that the kohl or drops do not break the fast but that the rest do.”

Ibn Taimiyyah continues: “The first opinion on this question is preferred. The most apparent conclusion is that none of them break the fast.

The fast is part of the religion of Islam. Both the layman and specialist must be knowledgeable about it.

If the preceding actions were forbidden by Allah and His Messenger to the fasting person because they would ruin the fast, then it would have been obligatory upon the Messenger to clarify that fact.

If he had done so, his companions would have known about it and would have passed it on to the rest of the Muslims.

Since no one has related that not from the Prophet, not with an authentic or a weak hadith, nor in mursal or musnad form then it must be the case that such acts do not void [the fast].”

He also says: “If the ruling is one that would affect everyone or everyday matters, then the Prophet would have clarified it to a general audience.

It is well-known that kohl was in common use as were oils, washing, incense, and perfume.

If they broke the fast, the Prophet would have mentioned them, as he mentioned other things [that break the fast].

Since he did not do so, they belong to the class of perfumes, incense, and dyes.

Incense goes through the nose and enters the head and lands on the body. Dyes or oils are absorbed by the skin and the body is refreshened by it. The case of perfumes is similar.

Since these have not been [explicitly] prohibited to the fasting person, it points to the fact that using them is permissible for the fasting person and so is kohl.

The Muslims during the time of the Prophet would injure themselves, either from jihad or otherwise, and would injure their stomachs or skulls.

If that would have ended their fasts, it would have been made clear to them [by the Prophet].

Since that was not prohibited for the fasting person, it must not break the fast.” Ibn Taimiyyah continues: ”

No one eats kohl and no one causes it to enter his stomach–neither through his nose nor through his mouth.

Anal enemas are also not taken as food. Indeed, it helps the body to release whatever is in the intestines and it does not reach the stomach.

Any medicine that is used to treat stomach wounds or head injuries [that is taken orally] is not considered similar to food.

Allah says in the Qur’an: ‘Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you.’

The Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: ‘Fasting is a shield,’ and, Verily, Satan rushes through the body like the flowing of the blood [in the body].

You should constrict his rushing by hunger and fasting.’ To increase his Allah-consciousness a fasting person must not eat or drink because food and drink cause the veins to fill up with blood in which Satan circulates [in one’s body].

They become easier for Satan through eating and drinking, not from enemas, kohl, or medicines applied through the penis or used to treat stomach and brain injuries.”

The fasting person can eat, drink, and perform sexual intercourse until fajr

If someone has food in his mouth when fajr is beginning, he should spit it out. If he is having intercourse (with his wife) at that time, he should immediately stop.

If he does so, his fast will still be valid. If he continues in these actions at that time, he will have broken his fast.

Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Aishah that the Prophet said: “Bilal makes the call to prayer while it is still night; therefore, eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktum makes the call to prayer.”

It is permissible for the fasting person to be sexually defiled in the morning (that is, a person is not required to perform ghusl before fajr)

The hadith from ‘Aishah on this point has already been mentioned.

Menstruating or post-childbirth bleeding women

If the blood of a menstruating woman or of a woman with post-childbirth bleeding stops during the night, she can delay ghusl until the morning and still fast but, she must perform ghusl before the morning prayer.

 

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